LIFE global programme was launched at the Earth Summit in 1992 as a UNDP response to the environmental problems of the urban poor. Since its inception, LIFE has demonstrated ways of directly engaging the sub-national, local and community level stakeholders, such as non-governmental organizations (NGOs), community-based organizations (CBOs), and local authorities by using urban environmental problems — water and sanitation, solid and liquid waste management, air and water pollution, occupation of hazard-prone zones, environmental health and education and urban planning — as an entry point.
Since the 1960s, major cities in Pakistan have faced an unprecedented rate of urbanization and
increasing poverty. As a consequence, an uncontrolled proliferation of slums (Katchi Abadis) was seen.
The populations of slums lack the most basic municipal services, such as water supply, sanitation, waste
collection or infrastructure etc. Many approaches have been adopted to solve this problem but it still
remains a big challenge for urban planners and development actors.
This research study is being carried out with a purpose (1) to explore the historic perspective of slums in Pakistan in general and in Islamabad in particular (2) to review the policies and status of their implementation, (3) to assess the gaps in implementation of the policies (4) to take stock of the issues emerged as a result of implementation gaps (5) to analyze the perspective of rights holders and duty bearers and (6) to explore possible and viable suggestions to devise future course of action.
The concept of imparting religious education in masajid (Plural of masjid) and institutions of religious learning is as old as the birth of Islam. Over the decades the system of religious education and training in many Islamic countries has undergone changes to bring it at par with the technological age. However, the system of education in the Indian sub-continent has more or less retained the old traditional pattern. Same is true about Pakistan.
At the time of independence many such institutions were in existence throughout the length and breadth of the country teaching children the Holy Quran and imparting religious education. People belonging to different schools of thought or Fiqah have set up their own institutions to teach the children belonging to their respective schools of thought. Apart from the large institutions located mostly in big towns and cities, the local communities have set up their own local institutions on self help basis. Lack of funds and formal professional training of faculty members are the main problems being faced by these institutions located in rural and remote areas.
Rawalpindi being a garrison city during British Raj was divided in two basic quarters the military town and the native. Raja Bazaar area comes within the native town precincts and hence had a more medieval and organic growth pattern. Over the years Raja Bazaar has become part and parcel of the economic life of both Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Located off Benazir Bhutto Road formally Murree Road, its importance is embedded within its location itself. With garrison town located in close vicinity, Islamabad directly connected through Murree Road, Major civilian institutions in immediate surroundings, Raja Bazaar has grown from a small market to a major commercial outlet.
Pakistan is the sixth largest country in the world by population. As of 2005, it has a population of 153.4 million, which represents 2.36 percent of the world’s population, with a density of more than 190 persons per square kilometer. By the year 2025, the population of Pakistan would raise to 228.8 million and 295 million by 2050. This increase in population will have direct impact on the water sector for meeting the domestic, industrial and agricultural needs. Pakistan has now essentially exhausted its available water resources and is on the verge of becoming a water deficit country. Sustainable and equitable access to safe water and adequate sanitation are widely acknowledged as important development goals.